The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan

 

Welcome to the Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. For assistance in exploring this site, please click here.

 Aug 22, 1779 - William Auld and William Linklater established the first Hudson Bay fur trading post in northern Saskatchewan.

Search Results

Search Criteria: troops

  • North-West Resistance 86% North-West Resistance - The Cree uprisings of 1884 and 1885, and the Métis Resistance of 1885, plunged the Saskatchewan District of the North-West Territories into turmoil, ending in armed conflict and open rebellion against the Dominion government. Of those significant military engagements of the Rebellion which took place between Canadian forces and the Métis, led by Louis Riel and Gabriel Dumont , only the initial skirmish at Duck Lake involved the North-West Mounted Police ...
    read more
  • Boer War 86% Boer War - Fought from October 12, 1899, until May 31, 1902, the Boer War, also known as the South African War, was an Imperialist-Nationalist conflict between Britain and the Afrikaner-populated regions of Southern Africa. The first major overseas expedition by Canadian troops occurred during the Boer War. During the course of the war, four contingents of Canadian troops were mustered. ...
    read more
  • Fish Creek, Battle of 83% Fish Creek, Battle of - At the onset of the North-West Resistance in 1885, the Canadian government reacted to the news of the fighting at Duck Lake (March 26, 1885) and the Frog Lake Massacre (April 2, 1885) by sending a force of militia under the command of Major-General Frederick Middleton to the North-West Territories. On April 6, 1885, the main column of the force, under direct command of General Middleton and led by Boulton's Scouts , left Qu'Appelle to began its march north towards the ...
    read more
  • Boulton’s Scouts 83% Boulton's Scouts - Boulton's Scouts were an ad hoc military mounted troop formed at Fort Qu'Appelle during the 1885 North-West Resistance . The troop was recruited from Boulton's Mounted Corps, which had been raised in the Russell-Birtle district of Manitoba by Major Charles A. Boulton. At its inception, the total strength of Boulton's Mounted Corps consisted of five officers and 123 men; the unit was formed to be the advance guard for General Middleton 's column of militia. ...
    read more
  • Victoria Cross: Saskatchewan Recipients 83% Victoria Cross: Saskatchewan Recipients - The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest recognition of military valour in the British Commonwealth and is awarded without regard to rank, service or length of service. The Victoria Cross was established in 1856 by Queen Victoria, who was inspired by the bravery of returning veterans of the Crimean War. David Currie, the only Saskatchewan-born Victoria Cross recipient, died in Ottawa on June 20, 1986. ...
    read more
  • Saskatchewan Dragoons 81% Saskatchewan Dragoons - The Saskatchewan Dragoons are a reconnaissance regiment of the Canadian Forces Primary Reserve, located in Moose Jaw. During World War I , the 60th Rifles contributed drafts of more than 5,000 soldiers to many units of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, including the 128th, 210th and the 46th (South Saskatchewan) Canadian Infantry Battalions from Moose Jaw. The 60th Rifles of Canada amalgamated with the 95th Saskatchewan Rifles on March 15, 1920, to form the South ...
    read more
  • Military History of Saskatchewan 81% The Canadian militia was reorganized, and in Military District 12 the infantry formed two units: the North Saskatchewan Regiment and the South Saskatchewan Regiment. 10th Field Regiment, Royal Canadian Artillery, the now Royal Regina Rifles, the North Saskatchewan Regiment, and the Saskatchewan Dragoons maintain their presence in the cities of Regina, Yorkton, Saskatoon, Prince Albert and Moose Jaw. Veterans from Saskatchewan who have served Canada are represented by various organizations ...
    read more
  • Big Bear (mistahi-maskwa) (ca. 1825– 88) 79% Born near Jackfish Lake around 1825 to an Ojibwa chief named Black Powder (Mukitoo), Big Bear spoke Cree as a first language, but also Ojibwa. He led his followers to the Cypress Hills , where they faced starvation from lack of game and the withholding of food rations, as the federal government attempted to coerce them to sign treaty and move onto reserves. The arrival of troops from eastern Canada squelched the Métis resistance, and First Nations people including Wandering Spirit, ...
    read more
  • Transportation 79% Introduction The vastness of Saskatchewan’s land-locked prairie, woodlands and Precambrian Shield has always created transportation challenges. The major fur trade routes of Saskatchewan were the Churchill, Athabasca and North Saskatchewan river systems. Under contract with the provincial Highways department, the Hatchet Lake First Nation provides seasonal barge transportation service to the community of Wollaston Lake in northeastern Saskatchewan. ...
    read more
  • Vimy Ridge 79% Vimy Ridge - Located in northern France between the cities of Lens and Arras, Vimy Ridge is 8 km in length and rises 61 m above the Douai Plain. Commanded by British Lieutenant-General Sir Julian Byng, Canadian troops took over the front line at Vimy Ridge during the winter of 1916. The artillery fire continued for days before the four Canadian infantry divisions attacked the ridge at dawn on Easter Monday, April 9. This marked the first time that Canadians fought together and they gained ...
    read more
  • Steele Narrows, Battle of 79% Steele Narrows, Battle of - The battle of Steele Narrows took place on June 3, 1885, and was the last engagement of the North-West Resistance . Often called the Battle of Loon Lake, it was an encounter between Steele's Scouts, led by Sam Steele , and the Woods and Plains Cree warriors led by Big Bear . The Cree withdrew to an entrenched position on a hill overlooking the Narrows and, low in ammunition, Steele's troops withdrew also. ...
    read more
  • Snell, Herbert (1880–1932) 79% Snell, Herbert (1880-1932) - Lieutenant-Colonel Herbert Snell was born in Stockbridge, Yorkshire, England on August 20, 1880. Given command of the newly raised 60th Rifles of Canada in 1913, Snell was instrumental in the construction of the Moose Jaw Armoury and the mobilization of troops at the outbreak of World War I . He was appointed commanding officer of the 46th (South Saskatchewan) Infantry Battalion, CEF, after its authorization on February 1, 1915. Snell returned briefly to Moose ...
    read more
  • Scottish Settlements 79% Scottish Settlements - The settlement of people of Scottish origin in Saskatchewan dates back more than two centuries to the fur trade . Many Scots involved in the fur trade as managers, factors, traders, and explorers took Native wives, with the result that many Métis were partly of Scottish origin and Scottish surnames became frequent among Native Indians and Métis. Métis partly of Scottish origin again played a role in the North-West Resistance in Saskatchewan in ...
    read more
  • Royal Canadian Army Service Corps 79% Royal Canadian Army Service Corps - Formed on November 1, 1901, as a branch of the Active Militia, the Canadian Army Service Corps (CASC) provided various support services to fighting troops. In 1954, 142 Transport Company RCASC (M) was formed in Regina and Moose Jaw from elements of 22 Transport Company. The Moose Jaw portion of this unit was disbanded in 1965 when 142 Transport Company became Transport Company of 16 (Regina) Service Battalion. ...
    read more
  • Korean War 79% Korean War - The Korean War commenced on June 25, 1950, when North Korean troops crossed the 38th parallel and attacked South Korea. Initially, Canada contributed three destroyers and a Royal Canadian Air Force transport squadron to the United Nations-led operation. The first Canadian unit to land in Korea was the 2nd Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry (PPCLI) in December 1950; the CASF, now called the 25th Canadian Infantry Brigade, followed in May. ...
    read more
  • Frenchman’s Butte, Battle of 79% Frenchman's Butte, Battle of - After General Middleton and his 5,000-man North-West Field Force arrived from Ottawa to quell the 1885 Resistance, the force split into three columns. The third, under Major General Thomas Bland Strange, marched north from Calgary and turned east along the North Saskatchewan River, where Strange hoped to trap Big Bear 's Cree warriors. On June 3, Middleton arrived with 200 more troops and assumed command of Strange's column. ...
    read more
  • Fort Walsh 79% Fort Walsh - In response to the Cypress Hills Massacre of June 1, 1873, Sir John A. Macdonald passed a bill establishing a police force to be known as the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP). In June 1875, Inspector James Morrow Walsh and about 30 men of "B" troop, NWMP, were dispatched to the Cypress Hills region; there they built Fort Walsh, a short distance from where the massacre occurred. The NWMP investigation of the Cypress Hills Massacre showed that illegal whiskey trading by American ...
    read more
  • Duck Lake, Battle of 79% Duck Lake, Battle of - On March 26, 1885, the opening engagement of the North-West Resistance began west of the settlement of Duck Lake on the Carlton Trail. Needing supplies for his troops, Dumont ransacked a store at Duck Lake on March 25 and prepared his defences against the expected NWMP attack from Fort Carlton. Although reinforcements were approaching, Crozier impetuously led a force of 100 mounted police and special constables out of Fort Carlton, where they confronted Dumont and 300 ...
    read more
  • Dieppe Raid 79% Dieppe Raid - A small city located on the northwestern coast of France, Dieppe is 60 km northeast of Le Havre, and approximately 100 km south of the English coast. The raid was carried out by a force consisting of 1,073 British commandos, 50 American Rangers, and 4,963 Canadian soldiers of the 2nd Canadian Division under the command of Major-General J.H. Roberts, the force commander. The South Saskatchewan Regiment (SSR), commanded by Lt.-Col. C.C.I. (Cecil) Merit, one of the units of 2nd ...
    read more
  • 5th (Western Cavalry) Battalion 79% 5th (Western Cavalry) Battalion - At the outbreak of World War I in 1914, cavalry units from western Canada sent contingents to Camp Valcartier, Quebec, to form the 5th (Western Cavalry) Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force. On April 22, 1915, the 5th Battalion was one of twelve Canadian infantry battalions assigned to the front line at the Second Battle of Ypres. During the Second Battle of Passchendaele, officially known as the Third Battle of Ypres, the 5th Battalion fought the enemy ...
    read more
  • World War II and Saskatchewan 77% Within a few weeks of the declaration of war two regiments, the Saskatoon Light Infantry and the South Saskatchewan Regiment , were mobilized. General A.G.L. McNaughton , a native of Moosomin, led the Division, which also included the Princess Patricia Canadian Light Infantry, a brigade laced with Saskatchewan recruits; indeed, volunteers from Saskatchewan could be found in many different units. Saskatchewan also contributed many airmen to the war effort, and took part in training Allied ...
    read more
  • Water Transportation 77% The main fur trade water routes in the province included the Churchill River system in the north ( see Figure WT-1), the Qu’Appelle River and lakes in the south, and the Saskatchewan River between the two. Water transportation on the rivers and lakes of the Qu’Appelle Valley during the fur trade was less important than the critical logistics involved in the Saskatchewan and Churchill river routes. From Fort Qu’Appelle for example, trails led to Chesterfield House on the ...
    read more
  • Tuxford, George Stuart (1870–1943) 77% Tuxford, George Stuart (1870-1943) - Born in Wales in February 1870, George Tuxford emigrated to Moose Jaw with his wife in the 1890s; they settled on a farm and maintained a large herd of livestock. While Tuxford commanded the 3rd Brigade, the 1st Division fought in the Battle of Mount Sorrel (June 1916), the Somme (September-November 1916), Arras (April-August 1917), Ypres (October-November 1917), the Second Battle of Arras (August-September 1918), and the Battle of the Hindenburg line ( ...
    read more
  • Steamboats 77% The company’s goal was to use steamboats to reorganize its transportation system along the 940-mile waterway from Fort Edmonton to the mouth of the Saskatchewan River at Grand Rapids, near Lake Winnipeg. It was the first of several steamboats that would navigate the treacherous Saskatchewan river waters that presented a number of natural obstacles to regular shipping by steamboat. By 1882 the new steamboats North West and Marquis were brought into service; that same year the ...
    read more
  • Spencer, Marguerita (Rita) (1892–1993) 77% Spencer, Marguerita (Rita) (1892-1993) - Born into the large musical McQuarrie family of Glace Bay, Nova Scotia on December 28, 1892, Spencer studied piano, organ and cello at Halifax Ladies’ College and at McGill University. In Saskatoon, Spencer continued her studies under Helen Davies Sherry, Lyell Gustin , and others. She performed on a weekly CBC program and with the Saskatoon Symphony Orchestra , and headed the Saskatoon Women’s Musical Club and the Musical Arts Club. ...
    read more
  • South Saskatchewan Regiment 77% South Saskatchewan Regiment - Authorized in the districts of Assiniboia and Saskatchewan on July 3, 1905, the South Saskatchewan Regiment originated as the 95th Regiment. It was reorganized into five regiments in May 1924: the Regina Rifles Regiment, the Assiniboia Regiment, the Weyburn Regiment, the Saskatchewan Border Regiment, and the South Saskatchewan Regiment. The South Saskatchewan Regiment was once again reorganized on December 15, 1936, with the amalgamation of the Weyburn Regiment ...
    read more
  • Poundmaker (c. 1842–86) 77% 1842-86) - Chief Poundmaker (Pihtokahanapiwiyin) was born in the Battleford region around 1842 and raised by Cree relatives. Poundmaker’s mother was a mixed-blood Cree, sister of Chief Mistawasis. To avoid angering his powerful father, Chief Crowfoot, Poundmaker’s hair was not cut and he served only seven months of his sentence. ...
    read more
  • North Saskatchewan Regiment 77% North Saskatchewan Regiment - The North Saskatchewan Regiment, a reserve infantry unit of 38 Canadian Brigade Group, is headquartered in Saskatoon, with a company in Prince Albert. In the following year, the militia in Saskatchewan again went through reorganization, and the Saskatoon area companies of the 105th Regiment (Fusiliers) became the 105th Regiment (Saskatoon Fusiliers), while the companies in the Prince Albert area became the 52nd Regiment (Prince Albert Volunteers). In 1924 the ...
    read more
  • Mollard, J.D. (1924–) 77% Mollard, J.D. (1924-) - Born on a farm near Watrous, Saskatchewan, in 1924, Jack Mollard is an internationally honoured engineer, geoscientist, teacher, author, and consultant. He takes delight in searching for hidden gravel and groundwater sources, spotting and avoiding terrain hazards, locating dams to store runoff waters, discovering northern transportation routes, and prospecting for oil, gas and economic minerals, including diamonds and gold. Jack Mollard has published over 100 ...
    read more
  • Middleton, Frederick Dobson (1825– 98) 77% Middleton, Frederick Dobson (1825- 98) - Sir Frederick Dobson Middleton was born on November 4, 1825, in Belfast, Ireland. In 1884, Middleton returned to Ottawa as major general, officer commanding the Canadian militia. The Canadian government responded by launching a military campaign, sending Middleton to Winnipeg to raise a North-West Field Force of 5,000 militia to quell the uprising. ...
    read more
  • French’s Scouts 77% French's Scouts - It was at Fort Qu'Appelle that General Middleton commenced the real preparations for the campaign against the Métis during the 1885 Resistance. Middleton empowered Captain French, an Irish officer who had been in the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP), to raise a mounted force in the vicinity of Fort Qu'Appelle. Following his death, French's Scouts were re-named Brittlebank's Scouts after Lieutenant William Brittlebank. ...
    read more
  • French and Metis Settlements 77% By 1870, the census of the North-West Territories and Manitoba listed 5,770 French-speaking Métis, 4,080 English-speaking Métis, and only 1,600 “European” settlers. In 1864 Fort Qu’Appelle, established by Pierre Hourie, a Métis from the Red River settlement in Manitoba, became a focal point for distant outlying Métis settlements. A considerable influx of both French-speaking and English-speaking Métis from Manitoba resulted from the Red ...
    read more
  • Embury, John Fletcher Leopold (1875-1944) 77% Embury, John Fletcher Leopold (1875-1944) - Brigadier General J.F.L. Embury, CB, CMG, VD, was born on November 10, 1875, in Thomasburg, Ontario. On its mobilization, Embury was appointed commanding officer the 28th (North-West) Battalion, CEF. Returning from overseas in 1918, Embury was appointed a judge of the Saskatchewan Court of King's Bench, He continued in that appointment in Regina until his sudden death from pneumonia on August 13, 1944. ...
    read more
  • Cut Knife 77% Cut Knife - Town, pop 556, located 50 km W of the Battlefords on Hwy 40. The Little Pine, Poundmaker, and Sweet Grass First Nations are situated north and east of the community. The name Cut Knife was derived from Cut Knife Hill (now Chief Poundmaker Hill) on the Poundmaker reserve. Cut Knife Hill was also the location of Colonel Otter’s encounter with, and retreat from, Chief Poundmaker’s forces during the NORTH-WEST RESISTANCE . ...
    read more
  • Arts and Culture 77% This stream of “prairie radicalism” was fed by diverse branches (right wing and left), and quickly came to define the social history of Saskatchewan, making it a “politics” deeply embedded in its culture. This was certainly the case in the arts, wherein Saskatchewan people came to rely on local resources and on art “made in Saskatchewan. Saskatchewan—“the heartland of Canadian football”—came to be so identified because of the unparalleled ...
    read more
  • Adams, Howard (1921–2001) 77% Adams, Howard (1921-2001) - Born into poverty, Howard Adams became one of the most highly educated, outspoken, and controversial Aboriginal leaders of his time. As an educator, political leader, and writer he raised the political consciousness of Aboriginal people concerning their position in capitalist society. When Adams returned to Canada in the mid-1960s, there was a growing cultural and political awakening among Aboriginal people, and Adams immersed himself in Métis politics. ...
    read more
  • Aboriginal Peoples and the World Wars 77% Aboriginal Peoples and the World Wars - During World War I (1914–18) and World War II (1939–45), thousands of Aboriginal men and women voluntarily enlisted in Canada’s armed forces. The Saskatchewan Indian Veterans’ Association (now the Saskatchewan First Nations Veterans’ Association) was incorporated in 1982 to focus solely on veterans’ issues and seek restitution for discriminatory treatment. The Saskatchewan Métis Veterans’ Association ...
    read more
  • Aboriginal Peoples of Saskatchewan 77% Non-Treaty Indians are members of First Nations, primarily the Dakota, who have reserves and are recognized as having Indian Status under the Indian Act, but were not signatories to treaties. Politics and Governance The announcement of the Trudeau government’s Indian Policy of 1969, which advocated termination of Indian treaties, rights and reserves, galvanized the First Nations of Canada to organize nationally under the National Indian Brotherhood (NIB). In 1982, the Federation of ...
    read more
  • 16th (Saskatchewan) Service Battalion 77% 16th (Saskatchewan) Service Battalion - 16th (Saskatchewan) Service Battalion, a reserve unit that provides combat service support to the other units of 38th Canadian Brigade Group , was organized in 1965 as a training unit with headquarters in Regina. In 1973 the Battalion was re-organized with 142nd Transport Company, Royal Canadian Army Service Corp (RCASC), and 5th Ordinance Company, Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps (RCOC), in Regina, becoming their supply and transport component; the ...
    read more
This web site was produced with financial assistance
provided by Western Economic Diversification Canada and the Government of Saskatchewan.
University of Regina Government of Canada Government of Saskatchewan Canadian Plains Research Center
Ce site Web a été conçu grâce à l'aide financière de
Diversification de l'économie de l'Ouest Canada et le gouvernement de la Saskatchewan.